Current Affairs

Green Propulsion For India's Human Space Mission ‘Gaganyaan’

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    Science & Technology
  • Published
    30th Mar, 2021


India's human space mission Gaganyaan is likely to use a green propellant to avoid all toxic and hazardous materials as a propellant.

What is Green Propulsion?

  • Green Propulsion is a green alternative for the conventional chemical propulsion systems for future spacecraft.
  • This is called a "green" fuel because when combusted it transforms into nontoxic gasses.
  • Example: Hydroxylammonium nitrate (NH3OHNO3) fuel/oxidizer blend which is also known as AF-M315E is one example of green propellant


  • Efficient: The green propulsion system seeks to improve overall propellant efficiency.
  • It delivers a higher specific thrust delivered to per given quantity of fuel.
  • It strives to optimize the performance of the hardware, systems, and power solutions.
  • This is easier and safer for storage and handling.
  • Less toxic: It will reduce the handling concerns which are associated with the toxic fuel hydrazine.
  • Lower cost: It requires a potentially shorter launch processing period and results in lowering costs.


  • This is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft for the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme under ISRO.
    • The spacecraft is designed to carry three people.
    • The mission will have two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • It will encircle Earth in a low-earth-orbit with an altitude of 300-400 km from earth.
  • GSLV Mk III (LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3)) the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle, will be used for the launch of Gaganyaan.