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Orchids at Kaziranga National Orchid Park in Assam

  • Posted By
    10Pointer
  • Categories
    Environment
  • Published
    3rd May, 2021

Context

The Orchid Park near Kaziranga National Park, Assam, is in news for its full bloom of variety of orchids and acting as treat for the eyes and a paradise for flower lovers.

About the Orchid and its abundance in India

  • It is estimated to be around 35,000 species of orchids in the world.
    • An approximately 1,314 species are found in India.
  • Categorization: Orchids can be broadly categorised into three life forms:
    • epiphytic: plants growing on another plants including those growing on rock boulders and often termed lithophyte
    • terrestrial: plants growing on land and climbers
    • mycoheterotrophic: plants which derive nutrients from mycorrhizal fungi and are attached to the roots of a vascular plant
  • Location: Himalayas, North-East India and Western Ghats are said to be the hot spots of orchid species.
    • It is also found in Deccan Plateau and Andaman Nicobar Islands.
    • North-East India has highest concentration and Western Ghats has highest endemism.
    • The highest number of orchid species is recorded from Arunachal Pradesh, followed by sikkim and West Bengal.
    • State flower: It is also said to be the State flower of Assam and Meghalaya.

About the Kaziranga National Orchid Park in Assam

  • The park was established in 2015.
  • Mini-themed village: It is designed as a mini-themed village, and encompasses a natural history museum, rice museum, a cultural centre, a handful of handicraft shops and a restaurant.
    • The museum is designed to suit the growth of the orchid.
    • The Orchids are said to be the greatest pride of North-East India. Assam is specially known for its wide variety of orchids.
    • This park is said to give protection to the wild varieties of orchids. As two species: Dendrobium Assamicum and Hearia Unmola has been extinct from wild.
    • The park is also known to have the world’s tiniest orchid.
      • It is a leafless epiphyte (a plant that requires another object or plant for physical support).
      • The scientific name for it being Taeniophyllum glandulosum.
  • Other orchids: The butterfly orchid, pineapple orchid, rabbit orchid, starfish orchid, the joker face and dancing lady orchid are other well known orchids of the park.
    • About 850 of them can be found in the Northeast and 402 species are found only in Assam.
    • Wild Orchid: The wild orchids are also collected from all across Northeast India.
      • It is found in variety of colours — yellow, orange, purple, pink, white and red. “
      • It has six petals — five identical and one modular.