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Parliament passes bill to amend Scheduled Tribes list

  • Posted By
    10Pointer
  • Categories
    Polity & Governance
  • Published
    11th Aug, 2021
  • Context

    In a recent development, Parliament passed The Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2021 to amend Scheduled Tribes list relating to Arunachal Pradesh.

  • What are the important features of the Bill?

    • According to the bill, at present, there are 18 communities with their synonyms appearing in the illustrative list of Scheduled Tribes in respect of the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
    • On the basis of recommendations of the State of Arunachal Pradesh, the bill provides for modifying Part-XVIII of the Schedule to the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, relating to the state.
    • Deletion: It provides for deletion of 'Abor' (tribe) in serial No.1, as it is the same as 'Adi' in serial No.16.
    • Replacement: Secondly, it proposed to replace 'Tai Khamti' instead of 'Khampti' at serial No.6 of the list.
    • Inclusion:
      • 'Mishmi-Kaman (Miju Mishmi)', 'Idu (Mishmi)' and 'Taraon (Digaru Mishmi)' in serial No. 8 in lieu of 'Mishmi, Idu, Taroan' in the list.
      • 'Monpa', 'Memba', 'Sartang', 'Sajolang (Miji)' in serial No. 9 in lieu of 'Momba' in the list.
      • 'Nocte', 'Tangsa', 'Tutsa', 'Wancho' in lieu of 'Any Naga Tribes' in serial No. 10 of the list.
    • The bill also restores the power of states to identify backward classes.

    Original list

    Proposed changes under the Bill

    Abor

    Deleted from the list 

    Khampti

    Tai Khamti

    Mishmi, Idu, and Taroan

    Mishmi-Kaman (Miju Mishmi), Idu (Mishmi), and Taraon (Digaru Mishmi)

    Momba

    Monpa, Memba, Sartang, and Sajolang (Miji)

    Any Naga Tribes

    Nocte, Tangsa, Tutsa, and Wancho

  • Who are Scheduled Tribes (STs)?

    Article 366 (25) of the Constitution of India prescribe that the STs means such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 of the Constitution to be Scheduled Tribes.

    • 342(1) Scheduled Tribes: The President may with respect to any State or Union Territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor thereof, specify the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within tribes or tribal communities as ST in relation to that State or Union Territory as the case may be.
    • 342 (2): Parliament may be law include in or exclude from the list of Scheduled Tribes specified in a notification issued under clause (1) any tribe or tribal community or part of or group within any tribe or tribal community, but save as aforesaid a notification issued under the said clause shall not be varied by any subsequent notification.
  • Why these tribes are called ‘scheduled’?

    • These tribes are called ‘scheduled’ is because they are included in one of the Schedule of the Indian Constitution (5th Schedule).
    • The Constitution of India has 12 Schedules. 

    State

    Major tribes

    Andhra Pradesh

    Andh, Sadhu Andh, Bhagata, Bhil, Chenchus (Chenchawar), Gadabas, Gond, Goundu, Jatapus, Kammara, Kattunayakan, Kolawar, Kolam, Konda, Manna Dhora, Pardhan, Rona, Savaras, DabbaYerukula, Nakkala, Dhulia, Thoti, Sugalis

    Arunachal Pradesh

    Apatanis, Abor, Dafla, Galong, Momba, Sherdukpen, Singpho

    Assam

    Chakma, Chutiya, Dimasa, Hajong, Garos, Khasis, Gangte

    Andaman and Nicobar

    Oraons, Onges, Sentinelese, Shompens

    Bihar

     Asur, Baiga, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Gond, Parhaiya, Santhals, Savar

    Chhattisgarh

     Agariya, Bhaina, Bhattra, Biar, Khond, Mawasi, Nagasia

    Goa

    Dhodia, Dubia, Naikda, Siddi,Varli

    Gujarat

    Barda, Bamcha, Bhil, Charan, Dhodia, Gamta, Paradhi, Patelia

    Himachal Pradesh

    Gaddis, Gujjars, Khas, Lamba, Lahaulas, Pangwala, Swangla

    Jammu & Kashmir

    Bakarwal, Balti, Beda, Gaddi, Garra, Mon, Purigpa, Sippi

    Jharkhand

    Birhors, Bhumij, Gonds, Kharia, Mundas, Santhals, Savar

    Karnataka

    Adiyan, Barda, Gond, Bhil, Iruliga, Koraga, Patelia, Yerava

    Kerala

    Adiyan, Arandan, Eravallan, Kurumbas, Malai arayan, Moplahs, Uralis

    Madhya Pradesh

    Baigas,  Bhils, Bharia, Birhors, Gonds,Katkari, kharia, Khond, Kol, Murias

    Maharashtra

    Bhaina, Bhunjia, Dhodia, Katkari, Khond, Rathawa, Warlis

    Manipur

    Aimol, Angami, Chiru, Kuki, Maram, Monsang, Paite, Purum, Thadou

    Meghalaya

    Chakma, Garos, Hajong, Jaintias Khasis, Lakher, Pawai, Raba

    Mizoram

    Chakma, Dimasa, Khasi, Kuki, Lakher, Pawai, Raba, Synteng

    Nagaland

    Angami, Garo, Kachari, Kuki, Mikir, Nagas, Sema

    Odisha

    Gadaba, Ghara, Kharia, Khond, Matya, Oraons, Rajuar, Santhals

    Rajasthan

    Bhils, Damaria, Dhanka, Meenas(Minas), Patelia, Sahariya

    Sikkim

    Bhutia, Khas, Lepchas

    Tamil Nadu

    Adiyan, Aranadan, Eravallan, Irular, Kadar, Kanikar, Kotas, Todas

    Telangana

    Chenchus

    Tripura

    Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Chakma, Halam, Khasia, Lushai, Mizel, Namte

    Uttar Pradesh

    Bhotia, Buksa, Jaunsari, Kol, Raji, Tharu

    Uttarakhand

    Bhotias, Buksa, Jannsari, Khas, Raji, Tharu

    West Bengal

    Asur, Khond, Hajong, Ho, Parhaiya,  Rabha, Santhals, Savar

    Little Andaman

    Jarawa

    • Major Tribes of North-East India: Abhors, Chang, Galaong, Mishimi, Singpho, Wancho
  • Constitutional Safeguards for STs:

    Constitutional Safeguards for STs

    Article

    Provision

    Educational & Cultural Safeguards

    15(4)

    Special provisions for advancement of other backward classes(which cludes STs)

    29

    Protection of Interests of Minorities (which cludes STs)

    46

    The State shall promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation

    350

    Right to conserve distinct Language, Script or Culture

    Social Safeguard

    Economic Safeguards

    244

    Clause(1) Provisions of Fifth Schedule shall apply to the administration & control of the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in any State other than the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura which are covered under Sixth Schedule, under Clause (2) of this Article.

    275

    Grants in-Aid to specified States (STs&SAs) covered under Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution.

    Political Safeguards

    330

    Reservation of seats for STs in Lok Sabha

    337

    Reservation of seats for STs in State Legislatures

    371

    Special provisions in respect of NE States and Sikkim

    Service Safeguards

    Under Articles 16(4), 16(4A),164(B) 335, and 320(40)

  • Conclusion

    The new Bill will be massively beneficial for the tribal communities of the state. Many tribal communities from the state were not included in the list even after independence.