The recent India Discrimination Report, released by Oxfam India highlighted that women and marginalized communities suffered discrimination in the job market.
Key-Highlights of the Report
- Declining Women Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR): It is the proportion of the working-age population that engages actively in the labour market, either by working or looking for work.
- For women in India, it declined from 42.7% in 2004-05 to 25.1% in 2021, showing withdrawal of women from the workforce despite rapid economic growth during the same period.
- Male-Female Pay Gap: In 2019-20, 60% of all males aged 15 and above had regular salaried or self-employed jobs; the rate for females was 19%.
- Discrimination in Labour: Female casual workers earn about Rs 3,000 less than their male counterparts.
- Increased discrimination for SC/ST: Self-employed SC/STs earn Rs 5,000 less than non-SC/STs and discrimination accounts for 41% of this gap
- Gender Discrimination in rural and urban areas: Gender discrimination in India is structural which results in great disparities between earnings of men and women under ‘normal circumstances’.
- This can be inferred from the data for 2004-05, 2018-19 and 2019- 20. The earning gaps are large, both in rural and urban areas for casual workers ranging between 50 percent and 70 percent.
- Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organisations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty
- It was founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
- Oxfam has been in India since 1951. It first came to India to respond to the Bihar famine.
- In 2008, Oxfam India became an independent affiliate and an Indian NGO.
- It is a major nonprofit group with an extensive collection of operations.
- HQ: Nairobi, Kenya.
Government Initiatives Related to Women Empowerment
- Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
- Ujjawala Yojna
- Swadhar Greh
- Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
- Pradhan Mantri Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme
- One Stop Centre