When few months are left for UPPSC Prelims 2021, it becomes very important for every aspirant to be on their toes and follow an organized plan which will help them clear this exam and keep them at ease during the preparation phase.
UPPSC Target PT in 90 Days Planner will provide you with a daily time table, which will comprise of the following:
Local Bodies and Political Dynamics
During India’s freedom movement, Mahatma Gandhi had strongly pleaded for decentralisation of economic and political power. He believed that strengthening village panchayats was a means of effective decentralisation. All development initiatives must have local involvement inorder to be successful. Panchayats therefore were looked upon as instruments of decentralisation and participatory democracy.
Article 40 of the Constitution, which enshrines one of the Directive Principles of State Policy, lays down that the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and, authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.
The Community Development Programme was launched in 1952 with thrust on securing socio-economic transformation of village life through people’s own democratic and cooperative organisations with the government providing technical services, supply and credit.
The BalwantRai Mehta Committee ( 1957) suggested ways of democratic decentralisation in a three-tier structure of panchayati raj. This meant that panchayati raj should be set up at three levels. They should be furnished with sufficient powers and resources. These three tiers of panchayati raj are:
Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj. The scheme was inaugurated by the prime minister on October 2, 1959, in Nagaur district. Rajasthan was followed by Andhra Pradesh, which also adopted the system in 1959. Thereafter, most of the states adopted the system.By the 1960s, Gram Panchayats covered 90% of the rural population in the country.
In 1969, the first Administrative Reforms Commission in its report on State Administration recommended that the main executive organ of the Panchayati Raj system should be located at the district level in the form of “ZilaParishad” and not at the Block level as PanchayatSamiti.
In November 1977, a Working Group under the Chairmanship of Prof. M.L. Dantwala was appointed by the Government of India, to draw up guidelines for block level planning. At the same time, in December 1977, a Committee on Panchayati Raj, headed by Ashok Mehta was appointed. The Committee considered inadequacy of resources, mainly responsible for failure of PRIs and, therefore, recommended, inter alia, measures for strengthening the financial resources of PRIs.
Although a number of committees were formed between 1978 and 1986 to look into various aspects of strengthening the local self-government institutions such as the committees under C.H. HanumanthaRao (1984), G.V.K. Rao (1985) and L.M. Singhvi (1986), only minor suggestions were made for any change in the ideas/structures proposed by the Asoka Mehta Committee.
After 1987, a thorough review of the functioning of local government institutions was initiated. In 1989 the P.K.Thungon Committee recommended constitutional recognition for the local government bodies.In 1989, the central government introduced two constitutional amendments (64th and 65th). These amendments aimed at strengthening local governments and ensuring an element of uniformity in their structure and functioning across the country.
Finally in 1992, after synthesising important features of the earlier exercises on this subject, Government drafted and introduced the 73rd and 74th Amendments Bills in Parliament which were passed in 1993. These introduced new Parts IX and IXA in the Indian Constitution containing Articles 243 to 243ZG.
The provisions of this Part are applicable to the Union territories. But, the President may direct that they would apply to a Union territory subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify.
2. Wards Committees
District Planning Committee
Metropolitan Planning Committee
Bar to Interference by Courts in Electoral Matters
All the provisions of the 73rd amendment relating to direct elections, reservations, transfer of subjects, State Election Commission and State Finance Commission are incorporated in the 74th Amendment.
The above disqualification on the ground of defection does not apply in the following two cases:
(a) If a member goes out of his party as a result of a merger of the party with another party. A merger takes place when two-thirds of the members of the party have agreed to such merger.
(b) If a member, after being elected as the presiding officer of the House, voluntarily gives up the membership of his party or re-joins it after he ceases to hold that office. This exemption has been provided in view of the dignity and impartiality of this office.
Day 8 Polity 8